Development of an Instrument Measuring Student-Teacher Caring Relationships Using Nel Noddings’s Conception of Care

2022.第50卷第2期(Vol. 50 No. 2).pp. 123–150


Development of an Instrument Measuring Student-Teacher Caring Relationships Using Nel Noddings’s Conception of Care

以Nel Noddings關懷倫理學為基礎之師生關懷關係量表發展研究

Te-Hsin CHANG & Suzanne E. GRAHAM(張德忻、Suzanne E. Graham)


Caring relationships between students and teachers in schools are essential to social, emotional, and cognitive development, but quantitative measures of these relationships have been limited by inadequate or incomplete articulation of underlying theoretical frameworks. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretically strong and psychometrically sound survey instrument to investigate student-teacher caring relationship in educational settings. This article describes the development of a new instrument, the Caring Relationship Survey — Student and Teacher Versions, based on Nel Noddings’s conception of care. The survey items assess different aspects of Noddings’s conceptual framework, with four sub-constructs of care: Engrossment, Motivational Displacement, Reciprocity, and Attribution of Best Motive Consonant with Reality. Item development included expert reviews and cognitive interviews with teachers and students. Survey responses were then obtained from 772 students and 629 teachers. The full sample was randomly divided in half for sequential exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA). EFA with the first subsample informed refinement of item composites, and then CFA with the second subsample compared four hypothesized measurement models. Consistent with Noddings’s perspective, results confirm multiple dimensions of both students’ and teachers’ perspectives on care but with one more dimension of care than theorized by Noddings. The estimated Cronbach’s alphas range between .68–.83 for the five sub-constructs. Further studies of the instrument using more geographically and culturally diverse samples will inform understanding of the instrument’s external validity.

Keywords: survey development; ethic of care; student-teacher relationships, social-emotional learning


師生關懷關係對於學生的社交情緒和認知技能發展有着舉足輕重的角色,但用於了解師生關懷關係的量化研究經常受限於理論框架的表述不完整,導致關懷關係淪為空泛的詞彙。本研究的主要目的是開發根據完整理論背景並合乎心理計量學檢視的師生關懷關係量表。依據Nel Noddings關懷倫理學中的關懷現象,完整界定了校園內的師生關懷關係,其四個子構念包含:全神貫注、動機置換、互惠關係、歸因於與現實相輔相成的最佳動機。本研究共收回772名學生和629名老師的問卷,把老師和學生的問卷個別隨機分為兩組子樣本進行分析。使用探索性因子分析進行題目的刪減並了解項目組成,而後使用驗證性因子分析檢視四個假設的測量模型。結果顯示,與Nel Noddings的觀點相似,關懷關係包含多個維度。子構念的Cronbach’s alphas介於 .68–.83 之間,視為可接受的信度範圍。此量表提供了一個以理論背景為基礎並同時考量學生和教師觀點的量表。後續需於更多不同的文化和區域施測,以進一步了解此問卷的外部效度。