2020．第48卷第1期（Vol. 48 No. 1）．pp. 87–107
Two-year-old Children With Special Needs Going to School: Implementing Individualized Education Program Through Parent–Teacher Collaboration
本研究採質性研究，考量以家庭為中心的原則與Bronfenbrenner生態系統理論的中系統觀點，以立意取樣探討兩位學前特殊教育（下稱特教）班教師與四位兩歲特殊幼兒家長合作實施個別化教育計畫（individualized education program, IEP）的過程，以及雙方合作對特殊幼兒、家長和學前特教教師的影響。研究者使用個別訪談、親師與團隊會議、專家諮詢、家訪、觀察、日常作息訪談表、家庭優勢和需求調查表、相關文件（如IEP、IEP月紀錄表）、IEP期末目標達成率、省思札記等方法蒐集研究資料。研究結果顯示，經過一年多的合作，家長多能在家執行IEP目標，提升自己的教養能力；四位幼兒的學習皆有進步，期末目標達成率多有提升。親師合作所形成生態系統理論中系統的支持連結愈好，幼兒進步愈多。學前特教教師透過親師合作IEP能獲得專業的成長，逐漸能了解家庭的優勢，並對家長需求有同理心。不過，在合作過程中，教師看到幼兒的需要與家長的期待有落差，親師彼此須達到共識並不容易。參與家長的親職教養能力已有提升，但需老師支持獲得IEP與兒童發展的知能。依據研究結果，研究者提出相關建議。
In this qualitative study, family-centered principles and mesosytem of the ecological systems theory from Bronfenbrenner were considered. This study explored parent–teacher collaboration through implementing individualized education program (IEP) involving two early childhood special education (ECSE) teachers and four parents of two-year-old children with special needs, as well as the influence on the children, parents, and ECSE teachers. Data were collected from individual in-depth interviews of parents of children with special needs, observations, IEP meetings, team meetings, IEP documents, monthly records for IEP, achievement rates of IEP goals, family strengths and needs form, routines-based interview form, and the researcher diary. Data triangulation was used to establish the trustworthiness of the study. Research results show that after more than a year of collaboration, parents could implement IEP goals at home and their parenting skills were improved. The learning of all four children has progressed, and achievement rates of IEP goals were enhanced. The better the support link in the mesosystem formed by parent–teacher collaboration, the more progress the children made. ECSE teachers could also achieve professional growth, and gradually understood the strengths of families and the needs of parents. This article also provided insightful suggestions according to the research results.
Keywords: two-year-old children with special needs; individualized education program; parent–teacher collaboration